NIPT reference library

Academic studies and papers associated with NIPD and NIPT

NIPT for fetal blood types


Chitty LS, Finning K, Wade A, Soothill P, Martin B, Oxenford K, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of routine antenatal determination of fetal RHD status across gestation: population based cohort study. BMJ 2014;349:g5243.

Kent J, Farrell AM, Soothill P. Routine administration of Anti-D: the ethical case for offering pregnant women fetal RHD genotyping and a review of policy and practice. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2014;14:87.

Bills VL, Soothill PW. Fetal blood grouping using cell free DNA – An improved service for RhD negative pregnant women. Transfus Apher Sci. 2014 Mar 7. pii: S1473-0502(14)00045-7.

Banch Clausen F. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care. Prenat Diagn. 2014 34(5):409-15.

Kent J, Farrell AM, Soothill P. Routine administration of Anti-D: the ethical case for offering pregnant women fetal RHD genotyping and a review of policy and  practice. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014 Feb 25;14:87.

Clausen FB, Jakobsen TR, Rieneck K, Krog GR, Nielsen LK, Tabor A, Dziegiel MH. Pre-analytical conditions in non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal RHD. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 18;8(10):e76990.


Oxenford K, Silcock C, Hill M, Chitty L. Routine testing of fetal Rhesus D status in Rhesus D negative women using cell-free fetal DNA: an investigation into the preferences and information needs of women. Prenat Diagn. 2013 Jul;33(7):688-94. doi: 10.1002/pd.4135. Epub 2013 Jun 20. PubMed PMID: 23625761.

Grande M, Ordoñez E, Cirigliano V, Cid J, Grau E, Pericot A, Teixido I, Marin JL, Borrell A. Clinical application of midtrimester non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping and identification of RHD variants in a mixed-ethnic population. Prenat Diagn. 2013 Feb;33(2):173-8. doi: 10.1002/pd.4035. Epub 2012 Dec 20.PubMed PMID: 23280558.

Moise KJ Jr, Boring NH, O’Shaughnessy R, Simpson LL, Wolfe HM, Baxter JK, Polzin W, Eddleman KA, Hassan SS, Skupski D, McLennan G, Paladino T, Oeth P, Bombard A. Circulating cell-free fetal DNA for the detection of RHD status and sex using reflex fetal identifiers. Prenat Diagn. 2013 Jan;33(1):95-101. doi: 10.1002/pd.4018. Epub 2012 Dec 6. PubMed PMID: 23225162.


Benachi A, Delahaye S, Leticee N, Jouannic JM, Ville Y, Costa JM. Impact of non-invasive fetal RhD genotyping on management costs of rhesus-D negative patients: results of a French pilot study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]


Clausen FB, Christiansen M, Steffensen R, Jørgensen S, Nielsen C, Jakobsen MA, Madsen RD, Jensen K, Krog GR, Rieneck K, Sprogøe U, Homburg KM, Grunnet N, Dziegiel MH. Report of the first nationally implemented clinical routine screening for fetal RHD in D- pregnant women to ascertain the requirement for antenatal RhD prophylaxis. Transfusion 2011 Oct 13 [Epub ahead of print]

Scheffer PG, de Haas M, van der Schoot CE. The controversy about controls for fetal blood group genotyping by cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. Curr Opin Hematol. 2011 18(6):467-73.

Szczepura A, Osipenko L, Freeman K. A new fetal RHD genotyping test: costs and benefits of mass testing to target antenatal anti-D prophylaxis inEnglandandWales. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011. 11:5.

Bombard AT, Akolekar R, Farkas DH, VanAgtmael AL, Aquino F, Oeth P, Nicolaides KH. Fetal RHD genotype detection from circulating cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in non-sensitized RhD negative women. Prenat Diagn. 2011. 31(8):802-8.


Finning K, Martin P, Summers J, Massey E, Poole G, Daniels G. Effect of high throughput RHD typing of fetal DNA in maternal plasma on use of anti-RhD immunoglobulin in RhD negative pregnant women: prospective feasibility study. BMJ. 2008. 336(7648):816-8.


Finning K, Martin P, Summers J, Daniels G. 2007. Fetal genotyping for the K (Kell) and Rh C, c, and E blood groups on cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. Transfusion. 2007. 47: 2126-33.


Grootkerk-Tax MGSoussan AAde Haas MMaaskant-van Wijk PAvan der Schoot CE. Evaluation of prenatal RHD typing strategies on cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma. Transfusion.  2006. 46(12):2142-8.

Daniels G, Finning K, Martin P, Summers J. Fetal blood group genotyping: present and futureAnn NY Acad Sci. 2006: 1075:88-95.


Finning KMMartin PGSoothill PWAvent ND. Prediction of fetal D status from maternal plasma: introduction of a new noninvasive fetal RHD genotyping service. Transfusion.  2002. 42(8):1079-85.